While the clinical studies were done on Liporeductyl - one of the ingredients of Cellumend to test the cream effectiveness to help remove and prevent cellulite, various other factors were also looked at, and some other interesting facts were also discovered, like the sequestering action of one particular molecule, and these studies also looked at the absorption of ingredients.
A 3D in vitro skin model was used for the absorption studies, which consisted of pluri-stratified human keratinocytes, showing morphology and functionality close to that of in vivo human skin.
In this 3D skin model a semi-permeable membrane is found under the artificial epidermis, and this membrane is in contact with the culture medium (referred to as undernatant).
This skin model is Skinethic®, from the Skinethic Laboratories in Nice.
For the test purposes 200 mg of the Liporeductyl in our Cellumend cream was added to each epidermal unit, with the quantities of caffeine and that of escin previously determined.
Pure caffeine was diluted to 20 ppm in the culture medium and 200 µL was placed in contact with the skin model.
Pure escin was diluted to 50 ppm in the culture medium and 200 µL was placed in contact with the skin model.
200 µL samples of the undernatant were taken at 2, 4 and 16 hours to evaluate the caffeine and escin absorption. All the samples were weighed and analyzed by HPLC.
Caffeine versus Cellumend formula
Escin versus Cellumend formula
From the absorption tests done it can clearly be seen that the liposomal formulation used with the Cellumend Cellulite Cream favors epidermal penetration - this fact is clearly demonstrated that penetration of the formulation is almost 5 times that of pure caffeine and almost 8 times that of pure escin.
The way that the formulation encapsulates the active ingredients in liposomes also enables slow release as proved by the determination of the 16 hour test, where the formula is absorbed more than 3 times than that of pure caffeine and 7.7 times than that of pure escin.
Although the above shows the rate of absorption that was achieved in the clinical trials, the proof of the pudding is still in the eating thereof, and this is where the rest of the clinical test results come in, which show the effectiveness of Cellumend to help remove and prevent cellulite.
Other clinical tests
Results of tests done on cellulite
The following results were detailed after the completion of the study, and can be divided as follows: